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    Wasps and Hornets.
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Flying insects

that pose a menacing threat with their stingers.

Where species of Bees, Hornets, and Wasps can inflict stings to humans, their benefits include being pollinators of flowering and fruit plants, reducing several species of pest insects by preying on them, etc. Some humans may have sever alergic reactions to the stings. Some of these sting capable insects live in social or solitary lifestyle. In Social living struture there are casts of insects which are assigned specific roles in the social community sharing one big nest or hive. There are workers, quuen(s), males, etc.

An example of solitary insects is carpenter bees and spide wasps whereas Yellowjackes, Paper Wasps, Hornets and Honey Bees are considered Social Insects.

Recognition

Body with base of abdomen constricted, sometimes stalked. Wings 4 in number, with front wings a little longer than hind wings; wings with relatively few veins. Antennae moderately long, females 12-segmented and males 13-segmented. Tarsi 5-segmented. Mouthparts chewing but sometimes with a modified tonguelike sucking structure. Females with a well-developed ovipositor modified into a stinger.

In addition, thorax contains as 4th segment, the propodeum, which is actually the basal abdominal segment fused to the thorax; wings without an accessory vein (extra vein behind anal vein) and hind wing with 2 or fewer basal cells.

Biology

Bees, hornets, and wasps have complete metamorphosis: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Those which are social have a caste system composed of workers, queen(s), and males (drones). Although the workers are sterile females, they occasionally lay eggs or can sometimes assume reproductive functions if the queen dies. Except for the paper wasps, colonies contain only the founding queen until mid-summer when many queens and males are produced; but honey bees have only one functional queen at a time. With the onset of cold weather, workers, noninseminated queens, and males die off leaving the inseminated queens to overwinter and start new colonies in the spring. Honey bees are the exception where the entire colony including immatures, workers, and the queen overwinters. In the solitary bees and wasps, only the inseminated queen overwinters.

Adults of social species feed on nectar, honeydew, sap, fruit juices, etc. Protein for larvae comes from pollen for the bees but for the wasps and hornets, it consists of insects and spiders if the adults are predators, or meat if they are scavengers. Workers get some protein but mostly carbohydrates from the trophallactic fluid exuded by the larvae when fed. The larvae of solitary species get all their food from the paralyzed prey or pollen ball upon which their egg was laid and which is then usually sealed in a cell.

Control

Since bees, hornets, and wasps are beneficial, control should only be done where there is an immediate threat to people or their pets, or when peace-of-mind is required. If control/elimination is required, then use an appropriately labeled pesticide. Dust and aerosol formulations work best in most situations, and carbamates and pyrethroids are especially effective.

For social species, locate the nest entrance for each colony to be controlled during the day. Pesticide application should be done at night when most of the adults are on/in the nest. Only background lighting should be used and a bee veil should be worn. For solitary species, their nest(s) should be treated during daylight but be sure to wear a bee veil and other appropriate protective gear/clothing. See the individual treatments for more specific directions.

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